2019 Highlights

It’s been a great year for Audere Communications and so I’d like to say a massive thank you to all our clients who have continued to put their faith in us to help them create engaging content, the wonderful attendees I’ve had the pleasure of training at our workshops and the amazing podcast guests that we’ve had the pleasure of working with and learning so much from.
Here are a few favourite highlights from the last 12 months
Brexit – the gift that kept on giving!
In January we helped launch KPMG UK’s Business of Brexit podcast series, which we thought would all be done and dusted by the summer.  However, with every extension that the UK was given to stay in the EU, we were invited back to KPMG’s Canary Wharf offices to continue to produce the series, and in December, we recorded Episode 16.

Business of Brexit guests

Business of Brexit Ep.1 – L-R: KPMG’s James Stewart, Yael Selfin, Tim Sarson; Mark Essex and Punam Birly

The show is hosted in the main by the company’s Vice Chair, James Stewart, alongside expert guests who join him either at their offices or remotely online from within the organisation and from across industry, plus we’ve included pre-recorded segments in a number of episodes.
KPMG UK have also asked to us produce their Ten Minutes of Tax series and a first internal comms podcast too.
The csuite podcast continues to grow
The csuite podcast provides a fantastic platform for those clients who have a story to tell and want to create a podcast, but don’t necessarily want to commit to producing a whole series of their own.  Partnering with the csuite podcast enables them share their content through their owned channels, and this worked successfully for new clients in 2019 such as British Business Bank and Cirkularis8 – as well as those who we regularly work including Ministry of Justice, FutureBrand and CFA UK.
We were also thrilled to be invited back to FleishmanHillard Fishburn recently to partner on an episode discussing their latest Authenticity Gap, out in January, plus we’ve partnered with Communicate Magazine and PR Week to produce episodes from events of theirs, launched a special series of episodes with Tyto, where we will be interviewing 10 Unicorn CEOs, the first of which went live in December with Darktrace’s Poppy Gustafsson, and of course, for the fourth year running, were based at ICCO’s House of PR to produce episodes from Cannes Lions where we recorded our first episode in front of a live audience, with Sir Martin Sorrell and Marian Goodell, CEO of Burning Man Project.

Sir Martin Sorrell and Marian Goodell

Chatting with Sir Martin Sorrell and Marian Goodell

Podcast Award Winners
In February, we won Gold at the Communicate Corporate Content awards for Best Use of Audio for our Arable Aware podcast series that we produced on farms around the UK for Adama Agricultural Solutions.  This was the second year that we’d worked with Adama on the project, and it was amazing to get this recognition for all the hard work that went into producing the magazine style show that had the aim of providing UK arable farmers and agronomists with the latest crop protection news and advice, thought-provoking content and seasonal messages.

We’re now hoping to hold on to our crown, as we’ve been shortlisted for the same award again for 2020, this time for our work with KPMG UK on the Business of Brexit – wish us luck!
Loads more workshops
Our workshops continue to be as popular as ever, and we really appreciate all the positive feedback we get from them.  We’ve run training sessions for our own clients including CFA UK and Forsters on topics of Podcasting and Producing Video for Social Media, as well as for members of the PRCA.

We’ve finished our year taking bookings from new clients including Brandcast Media and Aon to run training in early 2020.  If you’re considering doing the same, here’s a taster of some of the feedback we’ve received this year:

“Expect info-packed presentations from Russell which trigger ideas and energy.  He is as generous with sharing content and knowledge as he is modest about his achievements.”  – Jennie Wilde, Managing Director, Carver Wilde Communications
“If anyone is new to working cross border or doesn’t have any existing in-house experience and is having to translate and localise comms outputs I can highly recommend the Translation, Localisation and Transcreation workshop run by Russell Goldsmith. Fantastic webinar jam-packed with useful advice” – Lindsay Monaghan, EMEA Marketing Executive, Allflex Livestock Intelligence
“Russell is a really enthusiastic trainer with an immense amount of practical knowledge to share.” – Natalie Oates, Communications Manager, Anchor Hanover
“Russell and Pete from Audere Communications adopted an energetic approach to this project and really understood our business needs.  They created, planned and delivered a comprehensive training programme with a carefully balanced a combination of theory and practical skills expertly crammed into one day!” – Fiona Edwards, Head Marketing & Communications, CFA UK
“Russ’s podcasting workshop was really interactive and provided a practical grounding in how to create an engaging podcast. Russ has also been very helpful and supportive with any follow-up queries which I’ve found is unusual for a trainer.” – Hannah Pollak, Senior Account Manager, JBP
“Russell’s webinar was packed with real-life examples and killer stats that help demonstrate the power of video. I would thoroughly recommend to all PR professionals.” – Ali Gibson, Account Manager & Video content specialist, 8020 communications

Podcasting on Ice
We were thrilled to have won the pitch to produce Direct Line’s ‘Living Your Best Life with Saira Khan’ podcast series alongside Frank PR.  What we loved about this project was that the client went with our idea of recording on location at an ice rink – tying in nicely with Direct Line’s new ad campaign, and of course, with the fact that Saira was one of the stars of Dancing on Ice.

Saira Khan and Stuart Holliday promoting their podcast in a series of radio interviews

We supported the campaign by carrying out a consumer survey with our research partners at Yolo Communications, and then promoted the podcast through a series of BBC and Commercial Radio interviews that we set up for Saira and life coach Stuart Holliday.
Filming at Cannes Lions
As well as recording the csuite podcast at Cannes Lions, we also had a film crew there producing videos for ICCO PR showing highlights of the talks and events taking place from their House of PR.

Getting on a Spotify playlist with John Legend
A personal Cannes Lions highlight had to be giving a talk on the Lions Health stage with Zuleika Burnett, Creative Director of Havas Life Medicom, on the Power of the Spoken word and benefit of podcasting to Healthcare.
The session went down so well, that it was shortlisted by Spotify as one of the top 10 talks from the week, out of over 300 talks given, and they included it on a playlist alongside the likes of John Legend!  Listen here.

Presenting at Cannes

Presenting at Cannes Lions

New client claxon
It’s always exciting to win new clients, and as well as some of those mentioned already, we’re now four episodes in to producing Oxera’s Agenda Podcast – Beyond the Bottom Line, which recently took us to Paris to record their latest episode.
After interviewing their Commercial Director about Mental Health and wellbeing on the csuite podcast episode that we recorded at Mad World, we were invited to start work for Bupa Global, recording audio content at their end of year Broker Event, that they are sharing across their LinkedIn feed.

We also launched a new podcast for CFA UK to support their ESG course, working closely with Vested, plus Frank PR brought us back in to create a podcast series to help launch Hey Car in the UK, where we recorded a series of episodes hosted by Vernon Kay with guests, Harry Judd, Jasmine Birtles and Ian Haste.

And those were just the highlights!
All in all a pretty enjoyable year!
On to 2020…

CIPR adds new csuite podcast episodes to its CPD programme for 2019

We are thrilled to confirm that for the third year running, the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) has added more csuite podcast episodes to it Continuing Professional Development programme (CPD).
The CIPR states that CPD puts its members in the driving seat of their own career, gaining the knowledge and skills they need to progress.
Over 2000 of the CIPR’s members take part in CPD, which is the only route for them to become a Chartered PR Practitioner.
Eleven episodes of our csuite podcast series, that we produced over the last twelve months, have been added to the programme, meaning that those CIPR members taking part in CPD will receive 5 CPD points for listening to each podcast if they log it at their My CPD.
The episodes added to the programme are:

The Internet of Things
Produced in partnership with the European PR agency Tyto, in this episode, we discuss their Hype Report on the Internet of Things, hearing from a number of experts who contributed to it. Featuring:
Practical Futurist, Andrew GrillAbraham Joseph, Founder of IOT insightsStephanie Atkinson, CEO of Compass IntelligenceDan Yarmoluk, Director of Business Development for IoT and Data Science at ATEK Access TechnologiesRich Rogers, Senior Vice President for IoT Product & Engineering at Hitachi Vantara (at the time of recording); Tyto’s Managing Partner Brendon Craigie

Mental Health & Wellbeing in the Workplace – Mad World Forum
Recorded at Mad World, and produced in partnership with Nuffield Health, our guests were:
Sir Ian Cheshire, Chair of Barclays UK and Campaign Chair of Heads Together; Professor Dame Carol Black, Principle of Newnham College, Cambridge and Expert Advisor on health and work to the Department of Health and Public Health England; Brendan Street, Nuffield Health’s Professional Head of Emotional Wellbeing; Dr. Shaun Davis, Global Director of Safety, Health, Wellbeing & Sustainability, Royal Mail Group; Jessica Hayes, Head of Talent, McCann Worldgroup; Jack Parsons, CEO, Big Youth Group; Becky Thoseby, Group Head of Wellbeing, Department for Transport; Ian Howarth, HR Specialist in Wellbeing at Fujitsu; Dr Judith Grant, Director of Health & Wellbeing, Mace

World Travel Market
Recorded at the World Travel Market, 2018, we partnered up with some of the exhibitors and delegates to get a flavour of what was being discussed at the event. Our guests were:
Mark McVay, Chairman, UKinbound; Dr. Kevin Ashbridge, VP for Global Travel & Leisure Solutions, SDL; Hon. Edmund Bartlett, Minister of Tourism, Jamaica Tourist Board; Richard Fraiman, Chief Executive, Good Hotel Guide; José Luis Egas Ramirez, Undersecretary of Markets, Investments and International Relations, Ministry of Tourism of Ecuador

Behavioural Finance
Recorded in partnership with CFA UK from their conference in London on the topic of ‘Behavioural Finance in the age of algorithms’, we interviewed the five speakers from the event. Our guests were:
1. Markus Schuller, Founder and Managing Partner of Panthera Solutions
2. Philippa Clough, Portfolio Manager at JP Morgan Asset Management International Equity Group
3. Kristina Vasileva, Senior Lecturer in Finance at Westminster Business School
4. Shweta Agarwal, a member of BlackRock’s Risk & Quantitative Analysis Group
5. Magda Osman, a Reader in Experimental Cognitive Psychology at Queen Mary University of London

Social Mobility
Produced in partnership with the UK’s Ministry of Justice, to coincide with Social Mobility Live, our guests were:
Shaun McNally CBE, Chief Executive, Legal Aid Agency and Social Mobility Champion at the Ministry of Justice;
Jenny Baskerville, Co-Head of Inclusion, Diversity and Social Equality, KPMG; Nicholas Cheffings, Partner and Past Chair, Hogan Lovells and Chair of PRIME

How Connected Brands Drive Growth
The latest FutureBrand Index highlighted how the most future proofed companies consistently align the totality of the experiences they create with their wider corporate purpose and that was the focus of this episode, which was produced in partnership with FutureBrandand featured:
Kerry O’Callaghan, VP for Global Brand at GSK; Jeremy Waite, Chief Strategy Officer at IBM; Jon Tipple, FutureBrand’s Worldwide Chief Strategy Officer

VC and Female Founders Report
Produced in partnership with British Business BankDiversity VC and British Private Equity and Venture Capital Association (BVCA) to coincide with the release of a new report from all three organisations, commissioned by HM Treasury, which highlights the fact that female start-up founders are missing out on billions of pounds of investment.  Our guests were:
Alice Hu Wagner, Managing Director for Strategy and Economics, British Business Bank; Francesca Warner, CEO and Co-Founder of Diversity VC; David Mott, Chair of the BVCA’s Venture Capital Committee and Founder Partner, Oxford Capital

How To Create Award-Winning Corporate Content
Produced in partnership with CFA Society of the UK and recorded at their Professionalism Conference, this episode features some great interviews, including:
Produced in partnership with Communicate Magazine, where we spoke to two of the winners of their Corporate Content Awards.  Our guests were:
Brittany Golob, Communicate’s Publishing Editor; Dagmar Mackett, Director of Film, Video and Motion, DRPG;
David Boardman, Director of Communications and Engagement, MyCSP

Fintech Interactive Forum
Recorded in partnership with CFA UK from their Fintech Interactive Forum, ‘Asset management: Rise of the machines’, our guests included:
Mikey Shulman, Head of Machine Learning, Kensho; Vinay Jayaram, CEO and co-founder of Envizage; Julie Chakraverty, CEO and founder of Rungway; Yasin Rosowsky, Head of AI Research at Arabesque; Clare Flynn Levy, Founder and CEO, Essentia Analytics; Tim Grant CEO, DrumG Technologies; Geoff Kates, CEO, HTF Group

How Businesses Are Innovating For Long-Term Success
Produced in partnership with FutureBrand to coincided with the launch of TerraCycle’s groundbreaking LOOP initiative in North America our guests were:
Jon Tipple, FutureBrand’s Worldwide Chief Strategy Officer and Laure Cucuron, General Manager of TerraCycle

FutureBrand Country Index
Produced in partnership with FutureBrand to discuss the launch of their latest FutureBrand Country Index.
Ben Bland hosted the show and was joined by Jon Tipple, Global Chief Strategy Officer, FutureBrand; Rowan Williams, Creative Lead, Panasonic Design London, with contribution from Conrad Bird, Director of the Great Britain campaign at the Department of International Trade

All previous shows of the csuite podcast series are available at csuitepodcast.com as all podcast apps – search ‘the csuite podcast’.
There is also a growing community on Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram and Twitter, where you can get involved in the discussion.
Finally, if you subscribe to the show, please do give it a positive rating and review on iTunes in particular as this helps it up the charts!

The Power of The Spoken Word

I’ve taken the csuite podcast to Cannes Lions since 2016 and in that time have had the pleasure of chatting to 49 of the most inspiring speakers, judges and award winners who were at the event.  My guests have come to the festival from as far and wide as South America and India to Canada and Australia and have included agency leaders, brand owners, a social roboticist, a music producer, a spoken word artist and a body architect, with their ages ranging from Young Lions Award winners to an 86-year-old terminally-ill patient.

But what’s been consistent in all those interviews is that every single guest has had a fascinating story to tell … in their own words.
And therein lies the power of podcasting.
With no cameras filming the guests, coupled with the fact that we’re not broadcasting live, and perhaps thanks to the odd glass of rosé too, each interviewee immediately relaxes, resulting in an informal chat that allows them to be themselves, delivering authentic and engaging stories, whilst educating and hopefully entertaining the listeners at the same time.

Chatting with Zuleika Burnett (left) and Lucy McRae

Global podcast listenership has exploded since my first trip to Cannes.  Podcasts are easy to access and subscribe to on a mobile device and there are topic areas for everyone.  People listen in the car, in the gym, on the commute, out walking or running, as well as at home or at their desks of course.  And with radio stations now podcasting their programming, or creating exclusive content as a podcast, plus popular celebrities hosting their own shows too, podcasting is forming an increasing part of our daily media diet.
This has opened up a huge potential for brands to be using podcasts as a credible medium and so this year I’ll be presenting at Cannes myself alongside Zuleika Burnett, Executive Director, Creative and Innovation, Havas Life Medicom.  We’ll be looking at how the most difficult narratives can be harnessed to deliver healthcare stories as podcasts and how brands can rise above the noise of the other 500,000+ active podcasts to reach their audiences.
Russell Goldsmith & Zuleika Burnett are presenting on the Healthcare Insights Stage, Palais II on Monday 17th June, 12:45-13:15

Audere Communications & ADAMA Agricultural Solutions win Gold at the Corporate Content Awards

We were thrilled to have gone one step further than last year’s awards and progress from a Silver to Gold at the 2019 Communicate magazine Corporate Content Awards, that recognise excellence in creative content, corporate storytelling and communications.
The Corporate Content Awards benchmarks the use of narrative to call corporate audiences, across owned, earned and bought media. Held at the De Vere Grand Connaught Rooms, in central London, the 2019 event welcomed attendees from a variety of companies and agencies, all vying for the coveted prizes on offer.

Audere Communications took home the Gold for Best Use of Audio, presented to us by the evening’s host, Comedian, Suzie Ruffell, for our Arable Aware podcast series that we produce on farms around the UK for Adama Agricultural Solutions, and so thanks must go to the team at Adama for all their support in making the shows happen – Abbie Bieny, Alison Bosher, Andy Bailey and David Roberts. Taking Silver in our category was The Church of England and the Bronze went to AstraZeneca

On the farm, recording ArableAware for ADAMA UK

You can listen to all the previous shows of the series on Adama’s website.
Andrew Thomas, publishing editor of Communicate magazine and founder of the Corporate Content Awards, said, “the Corporate Content Awards has been a fantastic celebration of corporate storytelling. It’s been a celebration of the stories companies have told, of the ways they’ve told them, and the methods they’ve used to get their audience’s attention. The second year of the Corporate Content Awards has been a massive success, and those who won certainly have much to be proud of.”
Following the awards night, we produced an episode of the csuite podcast with Communicate’s Publishing Editor, Britany Golob and two of the other Gold winning campaigns.

That Original Podcast

Originally written for the PRCA to help promote the course we’re running with them on The Power of Podcasting …  written on 29th December 2018 …
I’ve just returned home from driving my daughter, Tara, back to Surrey University in Guildford (such a good dad) after Christmas in time for her to prepare for her New Year’s Eve party.
The journey time on a Saturday morning was around an hour each way – perfect for listening to two episodes of ‘That Peter Crouch Podcast’, my new favourite podcast.  The only issue being that my daughter is not the biggest football fan.  England Summer World Cup fever aside, as well as being dragged along with me to Spurs a few times when she was younger, I think it’s fair to say that the thought of spending an hour in the car with me listening to a podcast that features three blokes chatting about footie for an hour wouldn’t be that appealing.
But here’s the thing.  Whilst the podcast features Peter Crouch, a player who will go down in Tottenham folklore as the man who headed us into the Champions League back in 2010, and of course centres around him being a footballer, the show is about everything around football, not necessarily the game itself, and it’s funny, very funny. With episode titles such as ‘That Nights Out Episode’, ‘That Team Bus Episode’ or ‘That Fashion Episode’, the show is set up for Crouchy to share anecdotes about things that went on away from the pitch that, at times, are hilarious.
Tara enjoyed it.
The car is in fact one of the most popular places to listen to podcasts – stats range from 22% of podcast listening in the US (Edison Research, March 2018) to 35% whilst driving/travelling in the UK (RAJARLtd’s MIDAS Autumn 2018) to as much as 41% of the 52% of adults that said they listen to podcasts (Audere Communications, January 2018), although I wonder how much is a shared listening experience.
So why bring up Peter Crouch?
Well, back in June 2018, Techcrunch reported that Apple Podcasts now hosted over 550,000 active podcasts, and a quick search for ‘Football’ on iTunes, as you can imagine, results in loads of podcasts to choose from. But the reason why the ‘That Peter Crouch Podcast’ works so well, and I take on board the fact that it has BBC 5 Live to help it in terms of reach, is because it’s original.
And therein lies the challenge for any brand wanting to take advantage of the incredible opportunity that the growing popularity of podcast listening brings.  How do you come up with something new and different and then rise above the noise of all those other shows that are already out there with loyal subscribers?
It’s why I try and encourage the organisations that we partner with on our csuite podcast to be as original as our format will allow us, be that in where we record the show, from busy conferences with the background noise of the exhibition area providing atmosphere, to ICCO’s House of PR in one of the cabanas on the beachfront at Cannes Lions, or simply in the diversity of guests we have in the studio or range of topics we cover that impact businesses.  Those topics have, in the last year, moved from just focussing on Communications and Innovation to cover key areas such as Social Mobility, Financial Inclusion, Diversity and Mental Health & Wellbeing.

Recording the csuite podcast in the ICCO House of PR at Cannes Lions

Similarly, when we were brought on board by Adama Agricultural Solutions to produce ArableAware’, a niche podcast aimed at farmers and agronomists, we of course researched what was already out there, but decided to create a magazine style show that, despite it being audio, we record on farms around the UK.  Doing so enabled us to chat to farmers whilst walking through their crop fields, that sparked conversations that we simply wouldn’t have thought of having had we stuck to a script in a studio.  It’s also allowed the specialists from Adama to visit their customers around the UK and we’ve built a community of listeners who now email us inviting us to come and record the show on their farms too.  It’s been a huge success beyond just creating some content for their target audience to listen to.

On the farm, recording ArableAware for ADAMA UK

So, whether you are just setting out on your podcast journey or looking to adapt your existing show with new ideas and formats, try to think about how you can offer something a little unique, that will encourage listeners them to hit that subscribe link and hopefully give you a decent rating and review to help you up the podcast charts too.
Book a place at Russell’s Power of Podcasting Workshop that he is running with fellow PRCA Trainer, Jayne Constantinis on Wednesday 20th March

What is a manager?

Whilst hunting for something in the loft, I came across this bit of coursework that I wrote for my final year Business Degree … 25 years ago!
Remembering that this was pre web and social media, looking through it all, I thought it still made for an interesting read.
The comment from my tutor in his feedback was:
“Edges into a first-class mark as a piece of advanced and quite scholarly … journalism?”
He said at the time that it would be something he’d have liked to have published.  25 years on, I can of course now do that, well, at least as a blog post!
I have no idea if they still read the likes of Drucker, Taylor and Mintzberg on business degrees.  I’d guess things have moved on a little since my time.
However, I don’t recall ever covering half the topics I now focus on in the csuite podcast, such as Social Mobility, Gender Equality, Diversity and Mental Health in the workplace, subjects I really hope are now included as part of a management module.
But if you’re interested in a bit of theory (albeit 25 years old), or studying for a business degree and think this might help, or if you’re just intrigued as to why I squeezed in references to God and used Scrooge as a case study, then enjoy!
And if my former coursemates have got their old essays too and want to comment, please feel free – time for a 25 year reunion!
Btw, I have no idea if my uses of Ibid and Supra were ever correct!
‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’ – Genesis I, 1
‘Marley was dead, to begin with.’ – Charles Dickens, ‘A Christmas Carol’
‘The manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business.’ – Peter Drucker, ‘The Practice of Management’[1]
Question: What are the connections between the above three quotations?

  1. They are the opening lines to three of the best-selling books world-wide.
  2. In the eyes of most of their readers, the authors are Gods of some sort – The first a religious God, the second a God of literature and the third, a God (or perhaps better known as a Guru) of business and management.

However, if we were to look closer into all three, we may find a third connection.  That of The Manager
All three books have detailed descriptions of managers of some form or another, be they fictional or fact, good or bad.  By studying the latter, along with many of its author’s compatriots in the writing of management and comparing some of the theories to the stories found in the first two books, we may just discover what a manager really is, and what it takes to be a good one.
The following paper gives details of what management theorists have said managers should do and what they actually do.  It will incorporate details of the writer’s own experiences in places of employment and will conclude with a final definition of what the writer believes a manager actually is.
Management: A Brief History
Huczynksi and Buchanan (1985) state that management can be viewed as a function, or set of functions, that must be carried out if an organisation is to operate and survive.[2]  But what are those functions and who are the people to carry them out?
To understand what today’s manager is, we must first look at the development of management theories over the last century.
The first studies of management practices were made around the start of the twentieth century and consisted of two schools of thought, ‘Scientific Management and ‘Classical Management’.
Scientific Management
The key theorist, and perhaps founder of this style of management was Frederick Winslow Taylor.
Taylor believed that the main objective of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer coupled with the maximum prosperity of each employee.[3]  This statement is fine taken at face value.  However, Taylor’s principles for achieving this view came under heavy criticism at the time, and then more so in later years as more people studied the concepts of his and other styles of management.
Taylor’s scientific management principles were:

  • The responsibility of the organisation of the work is shifted from worker to manager – the manager does the thinking and planning; the worker is left with the task of implementation
  • To use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing the work
  • Select the best person for the job
  • Train the worker to increase efficiency
  • Monitor the worker’s performance[4]

It was the second of these principles where Taylor used his time and motion studies that looked into the breaking down of a particular task into specific elements, so that they may be observed and evaluated to improve on that task’s efficiency.  Although Taylor may have succeeded in his main objective, that of finding improved ways of organising production, what he was effectively doing was transforming the people doing the work into impersonalised parts of a machine.
Classical Management
Around the same time as Taylor, Henry Fayol was also studying management practices, but he looked more into the design of the organisation as a whole rather than on the breakdown of specific tasks.  In 1916, Fayol defined five elements of managerial work that have since become the basis for the general perception of what managers do.  He wrote that to manage, is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control.[5]  It is questionable whether the term ‘command’ is the right word to use in modern day management.  Later, we discuss motivation and perhaps the substitution for this word may move us closer to a correct definition.  Criticism to Fayol’s thinking was made by Henry Mintzberg (1973) who said that the five elements of managerial work had little baring on the manager’s actual daily routine.[6]
Fayol believed that a manager obtained the best performance from his workforce leadership qualities, by the knowledge of the business and his workers, and by the ability to instil a sense of mission.[7]  However, the type of organisation that he, and in fact Taylor also, advocated with specialisation of tasks and clearly defined lines of authority, was a ‘bureaucratic’ one.  This type of organisation may work well when there are:

  • Straightforward tasks to perform
  • The environment is stable enough to ensure the end-product will be appropriate
  • The same product is being produced constantly
  • Precision is at a premium
  • The employees are compliant with the rules and regulations

Modern day examples include production plants where the workforce is almost entirely made up of what are literally machines, i.e. robots, and as detailed by Morgan (1993), it is effective in some organisations where the staff consists mainly of part-time or student workers producing a standardised product such as those in a fast-food restaurants serving hamburgers.[8]  However, the ‘dehumanising’ effects to the employees that can be caused by this authoritarian style of management means that in the search for a universal definition of what a manager is, writers such as Taylor and Fayol perhaps only got it part right.  What they were missing in their principles of management was quite a number of other activities that a manager has to carry out, described by other management theorists, to be discussed.
Qualities of a manager
‘And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.’ – Genesis VI, 19
Managers have existed almost since the creation of man, but the study of their behaviour perhaps only began with people such as Taylor and Fayol (above).  For example, if major elements of management are, according to Fayol, organising, planning, commanding, coordinating and controlling, then arguably one of the first and best managers must be Noah heading his own organisation inside his famous ark.  However, as we have mentioned, there are more qualities to being a manager than Fayol listed.  The following section will try and list as many of them as possible, but in no particular order of importance.
Drucker’s View
Drucker said that a manager has two specific tasks:

  1. To create a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts
  2. To harmonise in every decision and action the requirements of immediate and long-range future.[9]

He used the analogy that a manager is both a composer and a conductor.  The first of the above tasks is like the conductor of a symphony orchestra, through whose effort, vision and leadership individual instrumental parts that are so much noise by themselves become the living whole of music.  The second task points out that, as a conductor interprets the composers score, the manager must be the composer as well.
With Mintzberg’s criticism of Fayol’s elements of managerial work (above), he also says that Drucker’s analogy is impossible too.  This is because from his studies, Mintzberg concluded that the manager’s job is characterised by pressure, interruption, orientation to action, and oral rather than written communication.[10]
I believe another reason why the manager cannot always be the composer is that at times, they may be given a set of objectives by higher authority.
Drucker said that there are five basic operations in the work of a manager, and in the case of my industrial placement at Hewlett Packard, my manager performed them all.  These were:

  1. Setting objectives
  2. Organisation by analysing activities and decisions, dividing the work into manageable activities and then into manageable jobs
  3. Motivating and communicating
  4. Measuring by analysing, appraising and interpreting performance
  5. Developing people

Objective setting
The manager determines what their subordinates’ objectives should be and the goals in each area of the objectives.  They make them effective by communicating them.
Organising by analysing and delegating
Organising by analysing activities and decisions and then dividing the work into manageable jobs involves another important quality needed by a manager, not mentioned by Drucker, but by Geoffrey Vickers (1984), that of judgement.  When applied to business executives, Vickers said that judgement is the power of reaching the ‘right’ decisions when the criteria are very complex, inadequate, doubtful or conflicting as to defeat the ‘ordinary’ man.  Judgements are not the same as decisions but are used to make them, they are ongoing.  Vickers defined three types of judgement:

  1. Reality – which are based on what is actually happening in a situation. These require the manager to detach themself from the situation and display objectivity, balance and boldness
  2. Action – where a commitment is made on the above. The manager needs to have ingenuity and be creative in a versatile way.
  3. Value – is where the value of the judgement or possible course of action is looked at.

Vickers concluded by saying that to make good judgements involves human intellect, sensibility, a good character and willpower.[11]
Drucker states that motivating is about making a team out of the people responsible for various jobs (through incentives and rewards for successful work).[12]  However, the extract from my placement journal in the section on appraising below, shows that simple appreciation for good work can act as a motivator too.
Perhaps the major contributor to the study of motivation at work was Frederick Hertzberg (1959).  He separated the elements of work into two factors:

  1. Motivation factors – (meetings people’s unique human needs) – these, he said, led to job-satisfaction through achievement; recognition; the work itself; responsibility and advancement and growth
  2. Hygienic factors – (serving people’s animal needs) – leading to job-dissatisfaction, however not just simple opposites from above. These were such things as working conditions; company policy; relations with supervisors, subordinates and peers.[13]

Hertzberg provided the challenge to managers to look after employees by serving their animal needs and making the most of them by appreciating their inner motivation for self-development.[14]
Motivation Case Study – Scrooge
‘he iced his office in the dog-days and didn’t thaw it one degree at Christmas.’ – Charles Dickens, ‘A Christmas Carol’
It is a shame that Hertzberg wasn’t around in the days of Scrooge, the manager in Dickens’ novel, ‘A Christmas Carol’, based around the time of its writing, 1843.  Scrooge is perhaps the biggest demotivator of all time and although he is a fictional character, he is an excellent manager to base a simple case study on regarding bad-management and demotivation.
Firstly, Scrooge did nothing to improve the hygiene factors in his office as the quote above shows.  His clerk, Bob Cratchit, suffered from job-dissatisfaction due to working in a cold and depressing office.  Dickens tells us that ‘Darkness is cheap, and Scrooge liked it’.  He also found it difficult to give benefits to his clerk, for example, when discussing Christmas Day, Scrooge said to Cratchit, “You’ll want all day tomorrow, I suppose?”.
When Scrooge was visited by the Ghost of Christmas Past, he was taken back in time to the place where he served his own apprenticeship.  It was seven o’clock on Christmas Eve and Scrooge’s manager, Fezziwig, announced that no one was to do any more work as he had arranged a party for all his employees.  There was music, dancing and plenty of food and drink.
“A small matter,” said the Ghost, “to make these silly folks so full of gratitude.”
“Small!” echoed Scrooge.
The Spirit signed to him to listen to the two apprentices, who were pouring out their hearts in praise of Fezziwig: and when he had done so, said,
“Why! Is it not! He has spent but a few pounds of your mortal money: three or four perhaps. Is that so much that he deserves this praise?”
“It isn’t that,” said Scrooge, heated by the remark, and speaking unconsciously like his former, not his latter, self. “It isn’t that, Spirit. He has the power to render us happy or unhappy; to make our service light or burdensome; a pleasure or a toil. Say that his power lies in words and looks; in things so slight and insignificant that it is impossible to add and count them up: what then? The happiness he gives, is quite as great as if it cost a fortune.” – Charles Dickens, ‘A Christmas Carol’
The small benefit of the party made the employees feel appreciated by their manager, Fezziwig, and hence motivated them.  This was a very different approach to Scrooge’s managerial style on Christmas Eve, who felt hard done by to allow his clerk the following day off.
What is also interesting from the above extract is Scrooge’s quote about “the power to render us happy or unhappy”.  Again, this shows the importance of the manager’s role in motivating their staff and that, in general, people are not just motivated by extra financial rewards.  Fezziwig’s small party gave a lot of happiness to his staff and as Scrooge said himself, was “quite as great as if it cost a small fortune”.
Steward (1986) says that communication, if it’s to be successful in getting people both to understand and to do what is wanted, is a cooperative or two-way process.  Its effectiveness depends on as much, if not more, on the attitude of the recipient as on the verbal skill of the manager, on the former’s ability and willingness to listen as well as on the latter’s clarity and sensitivity.[15]  It is the manager’s job, as Bernard (1938) says, to establish and maintain that system of communication – but not to manage it.  He compared it to the nervous system in the body, with the manager being the brain – the brain maintains the bodily system by directing those actions which are necessary, more effectively to adjust to the environment, but it can hardly be said to manage the body, a large part of whose functions are independent of it and upon which it in turn depends.  He said that there are two types of communication, formal and informal.
The formal communication relates to the lines of authority in the organisation, where the selection of the ‘right’ persons for particular positions in the lines are critical.  These people, according to Bernard, must have loyalty, which he said cannot be bought (by material or other incentives), the love of prestige – [this being in line with Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of Needs’, in which, after the physiological needs, safety and belongingness, humans strive for esteem and self-actualisation][16] – interest in the work and pride in the organisation.  Bernard pointed out that if the organisation is not successful, the conclusion is that its management is wrong (something, the England Football Team Manager, Graham Taylor, has recently discovered!), i.e., the scheme of communication or the associated personnel, or both, that is the executive department directly related, are at fault.  It is fair to say that this is not always true, but more often is the case.
Informal communication, according to Bernard, reduces the necessity for formal decisions, and is often in operation but not always apparent.  He said that the general method of maintaining an informal executive organisation is to select and promote executives with a general condition of compatibility – so that they ‘fit in’ – this can distinguish on education, experience, age, sex, race, nationality, faith, politics, etc.  Barnard says that excessive compatibility or harmony is deleterious, resulting in ‘single track minds’ and excessively crystallised attitudes – however, he continues that it is almost impossible to secure effective and efficient cooperation without informal communication.[17]  Whilst accepting this may still occur, it is important to bear in mind that this was written in 1938 when it was highly unlikely that there were many female executives or those from ethnic minorities.  I therefore do not believe that Bernard’s last view is still correct today.
An excellent form of communication, in theory, is that of ‘Management by Wandering Around’, which was the informal practice meant to be used by managers at my placement company, Hewlett Packard.  This involves keeping up to date with individuals and activities around the office through informal or structured communication.  However, in my year at the company, its actual existence was noticeable on very few occasions.
For a detailed discussion on appraisals, I have included below, an extract from the Reflective Journal that I wrote during my industry placement year at Hewlett Packard.  The section refers to the first Performance Evaluation that I received, which took place six months into my job.
“Companies encourage their managers to use the appraisal system for a number of reasons:

  1. To identify an individual’s current job performance
  2. To identify employee strengths and weaknesses
  3. To enable employees to improve their performance
  4. To motivate individuals
  5. To provide a basis for rewarding employees in relations to their contribution to the organisations goals
  6. To identify training and development needs
  7. To identify potential performance[18]

I was a little apprehensive at the start of my appraisal but relaxed quickly once John [my manager] and I started talking.  John gave me top marks for all but one of the sections and was impressed with my performance to date.  He said that I was the ‘pick of the Industrial Trainees and was mature and dependable.  He gave me a grade 4 out of 5 as I had only been at the company for six months but said that there was no reason why I should not have a grade 5 in June.
HP uses a ‘formal’ and ‘open’ approach to the Performance Evaluation, meaning it is systematic and planned out and allows feedback to and from the appraisee, i.e., myself.  I was impressed with the whole process, especially in that my Department Manager took time to read my comments in detail.
The method John used during the appraisal was in line with that identified by Maier (1958), i.e., the ‘Problem-Solving’ approach in which the manager effectively puts aside the role of judge in order to join the subordinate in mutual reflection on progress and mutual discussion about required action.  This style was used as opposed to two other approaches that Maier identified – ‘Tell and Sell’ – where the manager tells the subordinate how they are doing and endeavours to persuade them to accept what has been decided for them in terms of improvement, and ‘Tell and Listen’ – where the manager tells how the subordinate is doing but then sits back and listens to the individual’s point of view both about the appraisal and any follow-up action required.  It is the first approach, i.e., ‘Problem Solving’, or ‘Sharing’, which is considered the best basis for appraisals.[19]
There are differing opinions on the value of appraisals.  Drucker is enthusiastic and said, “To appraise a subordinate and his performance is part of the managers job.  Indeed, unless he does the appraising himself he cannot adequately discharge his responsibilities for assisting and teaching his subordinates”.[20]  Whereas McGregor (1960) was critical of the formal appraisal, saying that “appraisal programmes are designed not only to provide more systematic control of the behaviour of subordinates but also to control the behaviour of superiors”.[21]  McGregor saw appraisals as promoting his case of Theory X, i.e., a management style that assumes that people are unreliable, unable to take responsibility and therefore require close supervision and control.[22]
I disagree with McGregor’s view because, at least in my personal case, I found the appraisal mutually beneficial to my manager and myself.  I was impressed at how much John remembered from the previous six months and the interest he took in my work.
Gaining appreciation for my effort and input over the first half of this placement has served as a huge motivator for my future work.  This falls directly in line with Hertzberg’s work on job satisfaction.  He showed that factors that led to feelings of job satisfaction were motivational ones such as achievement and recognition.[23]  After experiencing my first ever work appraisal, I tend to agree with this viewpoint.”  – RWG 11/1/93
Developing People
The last of Drucker’s basic operations in the work of a manager is developing people, including themselves.  Many of today’s companies insist that this is part of their managers’ roles.  For example, at Procter & Gamble, every manager is assessed on the development of their subordinate and the acquisition by these subordinates of the skills they need to further their careers.[24]
Another important skill required by a manager that was highlighted in more detail by other management theorists, other than Drucker, is leadership.
As mentioned, Fayol said that leadership qualities helped managers obtain the best performance of their workforce.  Warren Bennis (1985) discussed four key abilities to be shown by leaders:

  1. Believing in a vision and adopting it as their own
  2. Communicating that vision and translating it into successful results for the organisation
  3. Trust and consistency
  4. Self-management – persistence, self-knowledge, willingness to take risks, commitment and change, the willingness to go on learning even from failure.[25]

In his writings, Bennis seems to describe leaders and managers as being separate entities, but I believe a manager cannot be a good one unless, as Fayol suggested, they are a good leader.  Leaders are inspirational figures and a manager who inspires their subordinates will, from my personal work experience, have harder working employees.
John Adair has also written a great deal on leadership and he also says that there is a difference between leaders and managers.  He said that leadership is about a sense of direction, knowing what the next step is, whereas managing is about handling something well.  He also said that unlike managers, leaders are not necessarily good at administration or managing resources.[26]  One of Adair’s theories relates to his ‘Action Centred Leadership Model’ where a leader must succeed in three aspects of working in a group or team.  He said a group shares three areas of common needs:

  1. To accomplish a task
  2. To be maintained as a cohesive social unit or team
  3. The sum of the group’s individual needs

Adair said that failure of any one of the above affects the other two.[27]
A third writer who said that there are distinct differences between managers and leaders was Abraham Zaleznik.[28]  Clutterbuck and Crainer summarise Zaleznik’s findings very well as Zaleznik said leaders:

  • Are active rather than reactive, shaping ideas rather than responding to them
  • Adopt a personal and active attitude towards goals
  • Develop fresh approaches to long-standing problems and open issues for new options
  • Are more interested in what events and decisions mean to people than their own role in getting things accomplished
  • Are often viewed with strong emotions by others
  • Tend to feel somewhat apart from their environment and other people

However, managers:

  • Focus on the decision-making process rather than ultimate events
  • Act to limit choices
  • Avoid solutions that might cause confrontation
  • Focus subordinates’ attention on procedures rather than on the substance of decisions
  • Communicate in signals rather than clearly stated messages
  • Play for time to take the sting out of win-lose situations
  • Need to feel that they belong to a team, fulfilling a clear and useful role within the organisation.[29]

Although it may be true that leaders do not always manage, a good manager must, in my opinion, be a good leader.  Even Drucker, in a recent interview, now discusses the importance of leadership in management.  He said that the challenge for today’s managers is to look to the future.  He commented on the Bible, mentioning Moses, one of the greatest leaders of the far past, only looking forward from the Red Sea after leaving Egypt, and never looking back.  Drucker says that this is how managers must act today.[30]
Handy’s view
Charles Handy (1993) used the analogy of a manager being like a General Practitioner, where they are the first recipient of problems.  Handy said the manager must:

  1. Identify the symptoms (problems such as low morale, faulty shipments) in any situation
  2. Diagnose the disease or cause of the trouble (understanding the organisational situation)
  3. Decide how it might be dealt with – strategy for health
  4. Start the treatment.

The third point is where Handy said that the manager’s main skills are used, and that the best checklist to use for building the strategy would be Peters & Waterman’s ‘Seven S Framework’ (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The Seven S Framework 
Seven S Framework
The cold triangle (Hard S’s) is easier to change but the change can be illusory if the warm square (Soft S’s) remains unaffected because each of the seven variables are interconnected.  Handy therefore said that, in the short term, the manager will be confined to the Hard S’s, but the longer-term factors must not be ignored.  In considering ‘treatment’, the manager will also reflect upon the feasibility of its implementation.[31]
But What Do Managers Do?
Do managers simply perform the tasks outlined by Fayol, i.e. ‘organise, plan, command, coordinate and control’?  According to writers such as Mintzberg (1973) and Steward (1975), managers’ jobs are far more complicated involving many more tasks than those five classical principles.
Mintzberg’s View
Mintzberg based his conclusions on his own findings from studying a range of chief executives and managers in various kinds of work (foremen, factory supervisors, etc.) and from different countries (USA, Canada, Sweden and UK).  He challenged certain myths relating to the work managers perform, and gave what he believed to be the true situations, as follows:

  • The manager is not a reflective and systematic planner but instead works at an unrelenting pace, with a variety and discontinuity of brief activities. Managers are strongly orientated to action and are real time responders to stimuli.
  • Managers do have a number of real and regular duties to perform, such as, ritual and ceremony, and negotiations. For example, field sales managers and chief executives had to make time to see certain important customers if they expected to keep those customers. Managers also can gain access to ‘soft-information’ (gossip, word-of-mouth) external to the company only because of their status, which they can pass on to their subordinates.
  • Managers strongly favour oral media (telephone, meetings) over formal Management Information Systems. This is an important point because oral information, if it is not written down, only becomes stored in the manager’s brain, which then becomes the strategic databank of the organisation.  It also means that mangers sometimes may find that delegating small tasks can become difficult if a lot of explaining is needed because by the time they have done the explaining, they could have completed the task themselves.
  • Management is an art, rather than a science and it requires a continuous process of self-education and assessment. Science involves analytics determined procedures or programmes, but the managers programmes remain locked deep inside their own brains.[32]

Mintzberg’s Roles of a Manager
Mintzberg said that a manager’s formal authority, which provides status, leads to various roles for them to perform (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Mintzberg’s roles of a manager
Mintzberg's Roles
Although managers do not give equal attention to all the ten roles, they are an integrated whole, i.e., no role can be ignored, and the job be left intact.[33]
Criticism to Mintzberg
Mintzberg’s method of research was criticised by Fox (1991) who said that as Mintzberg was an ‘observer’, he only saw what was happening whilst he was observing (which was usually one week per manager).  Tasks performed only once or twice per year, such as setting objectives for the organisation, were not recorded.  Therefore, the weakness in Mintzberg’s method would be the lack of dealing with periodic tasks.[34]
Stewart’s Roles of a Manager
Rosemary Stewart’s definition of a manager’s job is simply ‘deciding what should be done and then getting other people to do it’.  The first task comprises setting objectives, planning (including decision making) and setting up the formal organisation.  The second consists of motivation, communications, control (including measurement) and the development of people.[35]
Steward grouped five types of managers:

  1. Emissaries – much of their time is away from the organisation dealing with and entertaining outsiders
  2. Writers – a large amount of their time is spent in writing, reading, dictating and figure work.
  3. Discussers – spend much of their time with other people, particularly colleagues, and carry out a diverse range of activities.
  4. Trouble shooters – those who cope with crisis and whose work is highly fragmented. More time spent with subordinates than with peers.
  5. Committeemen – most of their time is spent in meetings. Their contacts are not outside the organisation.[36]

However, she said that the manager’s job varies so much that the statement ‘a good manager can manage anything’ is not true.  There are too many important differences in their jobs.  Although we can make generalisations, we need to understand those differences too.[37]
Criticism to Stewart
As he did with Mintzberg, Fox pointed out a weakness with Stewart’s research methods.  He said that as a ‘diarist’, Stewart told managers which tasks to diarise while researching them and that those tasks that fall outside such guidelines were ignored by managers completing the diaries.[38]
What Should Managers Do?
As well as pointing out what activities and roles managers actually do, leading management gurus have discussed what they believe managers should be doing as well to be successful.  Three key issues apparent from studying these writers’ views are: Information, Attention and Opportunism.
Peters (1987) within his 45 precepts for managers of all levels, said that they should listen to customers, end users, suppliers and retailers.[39]  Through doing this, they will acquire the information that as Drucker said, is their tool.[40]  Peters said that managers must then find ways of sharing that information with their colleagues.
Secondly, the manager must give serious attention to issues that require it.[41]  Waterman (1989) said that visible management attention, rather than exhortation, gets this done.[42]  Both he and Peters said that the best way of achieving things is to use teams as much as possible and to pour trust into them.
The third key issue, also listed by Waterman, along with attention, is informed opportunism.  The manager, according to Mintzberg, must view obligations as opportunities to turn into advantages, and should also turn the things they wish to do into obligations.  An example of the former is the freeing of time to tour the office, or factory, as in the ‘Management by wandering around’ activities that I mentioned were practiced at Hewlett Packard.
Management Styles
The style that a manager adopts in the management of their subordinates can vary tremendously.  Two good models for comparing management styles are Likert’s (1961) and Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s (1957) (Figure 3).
Figure 3 – Management Styles
Management Styles
To discuss my personal experiences of different styles of management, I am again including an abstract from my Placement Journal of last year.
“John has been an extremely good manager to work for.  He performs all the operations in the work of a manager set out by Drucker (1979) in that he sets objectives, organises by analysing activities and decisions and then dividing the work into manageable activities and then into manageable jobs, motivates and communicates, measures by analysing, appraising and interpreting performance, and develops people.[43]  On the scale outlined in the Diagram [Figure 3, bottom], I would place John right at the democratic end.  After delegating tasks, he is always encouraging feedback from me and willing to hear my point of view.  He appreciates my input and is happy to discuss situations to look at improved methods of completing a task.  He is also open to take questions at any time, not just from me but from all his colleagues, and due to his helpfulness and knowledge, he appears to have gained respect from all around him.  He motivates by encouraging me and taking an interest in my work, yet at the same time not crowding me by allowing me to work on my own, using my own initiative to get jobs done.  John has gained my utmost respect and due to this I feel able to approach him and speak in confidence on any work-related situation …
… Now compare John to one of the managers in the ‘Marketing Communications’ Department whom I have had several dealings with during the year.  Here we find the authoritarian …  This manager has gained no respect from any of the trainees and little from her fellow managers either.  She has lost the respect of her subordinates because she does not respect them.  She finds it hard to accept any new ideas from an Industrial Trainee (IT) or any constructive criticism.  Nor will she allow an IT to ask her to do something.  For example, in my case, she would only accept a particular request from my manager.  In her own words “I cannot believe a student asked me to do this”.  Rather than treat her subordinates as team colleagues, she looks at them as lower level workers …. It is only fair for me to say that this second example is not a true reflection of the vast majority of managers whom I have contact with.  Most in the organisation tend towards the democratic style.
My department manager, Dave Lyon, has another style again.  He is the team leader in my department, yet he has a very quiet approach to his work.  I do not have much contact with Dave nor in fact do any of the ITs.  However, he is always available and approachable if needed.  He lets his team managers get on with their work …
…Moving up the hierarchy – next there is Nick Earl, the Marketing Manager.  Again, I have little contact with him in the work I perform, but he is always prominent in our department, mainly because of the product and market information the we provide.  He again is approachable, and the HP Way is evident once more in that he has no privileges in his seating area within the office … his requests take priority over anything else… and so there are some signs of authority, but this is understandable due to the work he undertakes and the pressures and constraints that he must work to.  Finally, I will look at Bill Russell, Director of Sales and Marketing, UK and John Golding, Managing Director, UK.  I have spoken to Bill once … however, I do notice him occasionally in the building.  John Golding spoke to the staff at one coffee meeting and just before Christmas, but I have never seen him over our side of the building in the whole time I have been at HP.  So, I ask – What happened to the HP Way of ‘Management by wandering around’ … One definitely feels in awe of these two people because of the positions they hold but also due to their scarcity you feel under pressure when in their presence … their style of management is no different than I expected from someone in those positions – i.e. you know who they are and why they are there, but you will hardly ever have anything to do with them in the whole time you are employed at the company.” – RWG 11/3/93
 So, what is a manager?
Based on some of the descriptions given by writers on management, we have seen that managers have existed since biblical times, examples being Noah (organiser) and Moses (leader).  But as with these two people, certain managers may not incorporate all the activities and roles highlighted in this paper in the tasks they perform.  Different managers have different roles to play, and because of this reason, is it really possible for us to give a universal definition of what a manager is?  If we were to create one, based on this paper, the definition would be as follows:
‘Managers are people who identify problems and then think and plan before they forecast and then use their judgement to make decisions that develop their part of an organisation’s strategy.  They organise by coordinating their subordinates and delegating the tasks to achieve that strategy.  They set their subordinates objectives, motivate them and then analyse and evaluate their performance by appraisal.  They gather information and communicate it to their team.  They have numerous brief activities, work at an unrelenting pace, but always find time to seek new opportunities.  They show leadership and develop people through training to gain efficiency.  With a strong business knowledge, they become the figurehead, negotiator, liaison and spokesperson of their team.’
I personally feel that it is incorrect to generalise so far and give such a universal definition because no two managers are the same, period.  I have therefore devised my own much simpler definition, and although Drucker may state that the first responsibility of a manager is upward, to the executives in the hierarchy of an organisation,[44] it is as follows:
‘A manager is that person who is in charge of you.’
How they manage, however, is an entirely different debate.  Whether they incorporate all the activities and roles that make them good at their job does not mean that they can not be called a manager, it just means they may be a bad one.  After all, unlike Scrooge in ‘A Christmas Carol’, it is very doubtful that we are to be visited by a spirit that can take us back in time and show us the ways and means to win friends and influence people.  Managers will have to go through a constant learning process (more often than not through their own mistakes) and look to the future.  Although they may not be totally in line with the first universal definition given above, they may go a long way towards achieving a large percentage of it.  Maybe then, all employees will become as contented as Scrooge’s clerk, Bob Cratchit, and their children may observe as his, Tiny Tim, did:
‘God bless us, every one!’ – Charles Dickens, ‘A Christmas Carol’
[1] Drucker, P.F; The Practice of Management; Heinemenn; 1968
[2] Buckanan, D.A, Huczynski, A.A; Organisational Behaviour; Prentice Hall; 1985
[3] Taylor, F.W; Principles of Scientific Management; New York; Harper & Row; 1911
[4] Morgan, G; Images of Organisation; Sage; 1993
[5] Fayol, H; General and Industrial Management; London: Pitman; 1949 translated
[6] Mintzberg, H; The Nature of Managerial Work; New York; Harper & Row; 1973
[7] Kennedy, C; Guide to the Management Gurus; Business Books Limited; 1991
[8] Ibid 4
[9] Ibid 1
[10] Ibid 6
[11] Vickers, G, The Vickers Papers; Paul Chapman Publishing Limited; 1984
[12] Ibid 1
[13] Hertzberg, F / Mausner, B / Snyderman, B; The Motivation to Work; Wiley; 1959
[14] Clutterbuck, D / Crainer, S; The Makers of Management; MacMillan; London; 1990
[15] Stewart, R; The Reality of Management (2nd Ed); Pan Books; 1986
[16] Maslow, A.H; Motivation & Personality; New York; Harper & Row; 1970
[17] Barnard, C; The Functions of an Executive; Harvard University Press; 1938
[18] Cole, G.A; Management, Theory and Practice; DP Publications; 1990
[19] Mair, N; The Appraisal Interview; Wiley; 1958
[20] Ibid 1
[21] McGregor, D; The Human Side of Enterprise; New York; McGraw Hill; 1960
[22] Ibid 18
[23] Ibid 13
[24] 1994 Graduate Careers in Procter & Gamble; Prepared by PRL, Cambridge; 1993
[25] Bennis, W / Nanns, B; Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge; New York; Harper & row; 1985
[26] The Director, November 1988
[27] Ibid 7
[28] Zaleznik, A; Managers and leaders: Are They Different?; Harvard Business Review; May/June 1977
[29] Ibid 14
[30] Warren Bennis interview with Peter Drucker; Facing the Challenge; BBC Video; 1990
[31] Handy, C; Understanding Organisations (4th ed.); Penguin Books; 1993
[32] Ibid 6
[33] Supra
[34] Fox, P; Exploring Managers’ Jobs; International Journal of Manpower; Vol 12, No.&; 1991, pp 20-30
[35] Ibid 15
[36] Stewart, R; Managers and Their Jobs; Heinemann; London; 1967
[37] Ibid 15
[38] Ibid 34
[39] Peters, T; Thriving on Chaos; London; MacMillan; 1987
[40] Ibid 1
[41] Ibid 6
[42] Waterman, R; The Renewal Factor; New York; Bantam; 1989
[43] Drucker, P.F; Management, Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices; Heinemann; 1974
[44] Ibid 1

CIPR adds new csuite podcast episodes to its Summer of CPD programme

We are thrilled to confirm that for the second year running, the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) has added a number of our csuite podcast episodes to it Continuing Professional Development programme (CPD).
The CIPR states that CPD puts its members in the driving seat of their own career, gaining the knowledge and skills they need to progress.
Over 2000 of the CIPR’s members take part in CPD, which is the only route for them to become a Chartered PR Practitioner.
Eight of the podcasts that we produced over the last twelve months have been added to the programme, meaning that those CIPR members taking part in CPD will receive 5 CPD points for listening to each podcast if they log it at their My CPD.
Koray Camgoz, Public Relations Manager, CIPR said: “The csuite podcast has a earned a reputation for its thought provoking content and cutting edge analysis of industry issues. We’re thrilled to be able to share these podcasts with our members as part of our Summer of CPD campaign. The summer is the perfect time to take stock of your professional goals and learn about developing areas of practice. These podcasts provide members with an excellent opportunity to do that.”
The episodes added to the programme are:
Driving Cultural Transformation
The first of three special episodes recorded in partnership with Microsoft from their Future Decoded event in ExCeL, London and featuring:
Clare Barclay, COO Microsoft UK
Ian McLaren, Finance and Contracts Director at London Midland
Hector Minto, Microsoft’s Accessibility Evangelist for EMEA
Andrew Cook, Microsoft’s Senior Product Marketing Manager for Firstline
Patience Wootton of Dentsu Aegis Network

UK Tech Influencers – Top 500 Power List
Recorded in partnership with Tyto to discuss the launch of their ‘Tyto Tech 500 Power List‘, which consists of the top 500 Technology influencers in the UK. Guests in the studio were:
Ellen Raphael, Head of Insight, Tyto
Brendon Craigie, Managing Partner, Tyto
Dr Sue Black OBE, Technology Evangelist and UK Government Advisor on Digital Services
Jeremy Waite, IBM’s Global Leader of CMO Programs
Plus we also hear from Anne Boden, CEO of Starling Bank

Readying business for the big data revolution 
Produced in partnership with the Association of International Certified Professional Accountants, we were joined by:
The Association’s, Associate Technical Director, Peter Simons
Simon Jeffery, Group Manager for Technology & Management Information Systems at Siem Car Carriers.

The Content State Of Mind – Attitudes to Branded Content  
James Erskine, Managing Director of The Big Shot discusses the findings of his agency’s latest research into consumer attitudes to branded content.
He was also joined by Hannah Bourne, Marketing Director Children’s at Penguin Random House UK who talks about working with online influencers.

How To Create Award-Winning Corporate Content
We speak to some of the winners from Communicate Magazines’s 2018 Corporate Content Awards. In the studio were:
Amaris Cole, Digital Communications and Content Manager at the Church of England
Tim Turner, Content Director at content marketing agency, Wardour
Andrew Thomas, Founder of Cravenhill Publishing, the publishers of Communicate magazine and the organisers of the Corporate Content Awards.
We also hear from Nathanael Moyers, Head of UK Corporate Communications at Arcadis and Ashish Babu the Chief Marketing and Communications Officer for Tata Consultancy Services in Europe and the UK.

Wellbeing in the Workplace
Sponsored by Nuffield Health and recorded at the Endeavour Search & Selection Wellbeing Seminar, we spoke with a number of the morning’s presenters, including:
Geoff McDonald, former Global VP for HR at Unilever, who talked about the need for companies to embed purpose as a driver of their business performance and why it’s so important for people to talk about their mental health
Alaana Linney, [at the time] Director of Business Development, Nuffield Health on their holistic approach to health and wellbeing and understanding data
Monica Kalia, Co-founder, Neyber on financial wellbeing.
Alan Fogarty, Partner at Cundall on how a building can impact on the wellness of those working within it.
Holly Price, Training & Development Director, Keltbray Group & Daniel Raine, Global Director Consulting & Business Intelligence, HRG Worldwide shared their company’s wellbeing journeys.
Kirsten Samuel, CEO of Kamwell on implementing wellbeing programmes

The Investment Professional of the Future
Produced in partnership with CFA Society of the UK and recorded at their Professionalism Conference, this episode features some great interviews, including:
Dame Helena Morrissey, Head of Personal Investing at Legal & General Investment Management on Trust and Diversity
Jeremy White, Executive Editor of Wired, on AI, Blockchain and Facebook
Ben Page, Chief Executive of Ipsos MORI on ‘Trust and the State of Britain in 2018’
Gary Baker, CFA Institute’s Managing Director EMEA and Gerry Fowler, Chairman, CFA Society of the UK discuss expectations of a Professional, Ethics and Value
Patrick Hudson, Professor Emeritus in The Human Factor in Safety at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands on ‘How High-Hazard Industries Manage Safety’
James Parsons, Leadership coach at Untapped Talent on ‘The Hidden Drivers of Ethical Behaviour’

Business & Government Partnerships
Produced in partnership with the Cabinet Office, in this episode we discussed how the work being carried by its Business Partnerships team, is building successful, long-term partnerships between business and government to deliver the voice of business into policy development and transformation, with the main aim of tackling the UK’s biggest social and economic challenges. Our guests in the studio were:
Shevaun Haviland, Deputy Director for Business Partnerships at the Prime Minister’s Office and Cabinet Office
Ann Pickering, CHRO and Chief of Staff at Telefónica UK (O2 in the UK)
Caroline Mason CBE, the Chief Executive Officer of the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation and Co-Chair of the Inclusive Economy Partnership

All previous shows of the csuite podcast series are available at csuitepodcast.com as well as SoundcloudiTunesTuneInacast, Google Podcasts and Stitcher.
There is also a growing community on Facebook and Twitter, where you can get involved in the discussion.
Finally, if you subscribe to the show, please do give it a positive rating and review on iTunes in particular as this helps it up the charts!

Audere Communications launches new crop protection podcast for Adama UK

Audere Communications has launched a new podcast series for Adama Agricultural Solutions UK Ltd. (Adama) with the aim of providing UK arable farmers and agronomists with the latest crop protection news and advice.

The new ArableAware podcast will be a magazine style show, with each episode recorded on a different farm around the UK, containing a range of topical features, industry news, interviews with farmers, agronomists and other industry experts as well as Adama’s own fungicide and herbicide specialists.
“Podcasts are growing in popularity as a means of divulging targeted information to a specific audience,” explains Abbie Bieny, Adama’s digital marketing specialist.  “We recognise that farmers spend a lot of time alone in their tractor cab or farm vehicle, especially during the busy drilling, spraying and harvesting seasons, and wanted to provide them with interesting, relevant and thought-provoking audio content that they can download and listen to at their convenience.
“Making content available to listen to in this format will allow us to share our key messages with a captive and focused audience and is the ideal format for the industry to discuss a range of issues affecting UK arable crop production and protection.”

Photo of podcast guests

L-R: Adama UK specialists Andy Bailey and David Roberts; Podcast Host, Russell Goldsmith and Strawson Ltd’s in-house agronomist Ian Holmes

The first episode of ArableAware includes specific T0 crop protection advice, the latest thoughts on Broad Leaved Weed resistance and an exclusive interview with farming podcast pioneer, Will Evans of Rock & Roll Farming, to hear his thoughts on the role of podcasts in improving knowledge sharing within the agricultural community.
Russell Goldsmith, Founder of Audere Communications, who also hosts the first ArableAware episode said “Podcasts are becoming an important part of a brand’s content strategy, reaching audiences in places other formats can’t necessarily achieve as easily and in such a personal manner.  Adama recognised this opportunity as a way of engaging with farmers and agronomists in particular and it’s been really exciting to plan, produce and launch the new series for them.”
The first episode of ArableAware is available to download from iTunes (search ‘ArableAware’) or at uk.information-hub.adama.com/arableaware

Audere Communications & Microsoft win Silver at the Corporate Content Awards

We were thrilled to have picked up the first award for the csuite podcast at the inaugural Communicate magazine Corporate Content Awards, an achievement that recognises our excellence in creative content, corporate storytelling and communications.
corporate content award
The Corporate Content Awards benchmark the use of narrative to call corporate audiences, across owned, earned and bought media. Held at the VSC, in Central London, the 2018 event welcomed attendees from a variety of companies and agencies, all vying for the coveted prizes on offer.
We received a Silver for Best Use of Audio for the episodes of the series we produced in partnership with Microsoft UK from their Future Decoded event, so thanks go to Scott Allen & Victoria Oakes from Microsoft for bringing us on board. You can read the full case study of the work here.
We can now officially say we have an Award Winning podcast! 
Many thanks to Andrew Thomaspublishing editor of Communicate magazine and his team for a well organised night.
And talking of podcasts, we produced the below episode of the csuite podcast with Andrew and some of the winners from the night talking about what it takes to create award winning corporate content.

How to make a recipe video on a budget

Within our Using Video in Social Media workshop, a request we regularly get asked for is to use case studies that don’t feature videos for clients that were the result of huge production budgets. One of our favourite examples that we therefore talk about in the session is a video from Discover Great Veg (below), provided to us by Sara Davis from Ceres PR, who produced the video .

We therefore asked Sara to provide us with a guest blog post about the production of the video…
How to make a recipe video on a budget

Anyone who works in social media knows just how much content you need to populate a feed. Generating original content can be costly, so smaller brands could be put off producing video. Despite some production houses charging upwards of £20K per video, you can make a recipe video with an iPhone, a little help with the cooking, time and imagination. What you do need, is investment in production, props and a promotional budget if you’re distributing the content yourself.
Whilst the ‘Tasty’ type videos may look like a synch to knock up, there are certain factors to consider both in the content side and the technical side before you begin. At Ceres we always use a home economist to ensure the food is perfect, which leaves me free to do just about everything else myself.
Firstly, what you need is a simple recipe that’s going to look mouth-watering when cooked, the final video needs to inspire people. Think either colour or indulgence. Beef Bourguignon may taste great, but it’s difficult to get a brown stew to ‘Wow’.  Melted cheese and running poached eggs look particularly good, or something healthy and colourful that will ‘pop’ off the screen.
You then need to break it down into a few simple stages to give the gist. You can post the full recipe as a link at the end, so forget the minor details and focus on making it look easy, achievable and delicious.
Plan each stage and what props you will need. This is where you can add some subtle personality to the video.
Bowls, chopping boards, plates and napkins etc. all help create a certain ‘feel’- we have amassed quite a props store and I always keep an eye out for interesting stuff when I shop.
It’s worth taking note of food magazines as food styling in photography gives ideas on current trends. Years ago it was all white plates and close ups, now it is much more lifestyle based with wider shots and more props to create a mood. Avoid anything shiny if possible, go for matts and textures as everything will look much more ‘premium’ and you won’t get camera or light reflections.
At the planning stage it’s useful to know which platform you are shooting for – YouTube & Twitter require landscape, Instagram needs square and Facebook can take either. Knowing this in advance helps with props and framing, particularly for any captions you may need to include. You may need to shoot some sections twice to accommodate both formats.
I have a Canon 7D and an iPhone6 which I use to film. Both are good and I use them in different ways. The iPhone is particularly good for overhead shooting.
iphone overhead 
I try to set the position to the widest I will need during the recipe and leave it locked off so I can edit seamlessly. I use my DSLR for some close ups and cutaway shots which give more depth to the piece and can also be used as bridging shots to get from A to B if needed.
Lighting is something to watch out for. I try to use natural light where possible as it’s so powerful (and free!).  Unfortunately in the UK, though the weather isn’t consistent so artificial light is a necessity and I have a set of LEDs to give things a boost when needed.
The time needed depends on the recipe itself. We cook everything on camera, even if it might not make the edit, and we only re-shoot a section if there is a problem. What I do take time over is the final dish as this is the selling point, so I will spend time styling it with props and shoot a variety of shot sizes and angles. A word of warning – those delicious M&S type shots with cream running seductively down a dessert can take an AGE to film as food doesn’t take stage direction very well – so build in extra time and ingredients if you plan on getting some movement in there. It’s almost always worth it, but you do need patience.
I edit everything on Final Cut Pro X as I find this is the quickest programme to get professional results, especially with all the captions involved. Of course it’s not just about the footage, choosing the right music can take hours if you let it, as there are an infinite amount of tracks out there. It’s worth choosing a track first and then cutting to the beat as this can help give the video some rhythm and pace. Ideally the shorter the better and it should definitely be less than a minute to sit on Instagram. Facebook is less restrictive, and it will loop anything 30 seconds or less for a maximum of three times which can help to attract attention to your content. I try to start and end on a good shot of the final dish to lure people in – if I get hungry editing it then I think I’m on the right track! Fortunately, in my job there’s always loads of delicious food around and because the role is quite physical I tend to burn it all off straight away. The downside is…nope, sorry there isn’t one. What can I say?

Sara Davis

Content Manager
Ceres PR
Please use the contact form to enquire about fees and to book our Using Video in Social Media workshop at your offices for your wider team.

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